Monday, May 25, 2020

The Battle Of The Civil War - 1394 Words

Fuller 4 Sean Fuller Mr. Bradford US History 24 October 2014 In 1861 the Civil War began, but the cause of the war began decades before with a societal struggle of slavery between North and South. The societal influences that lead up to the Civil War consisted of five distinct events, all intertwined with one another. The societal events began with the rise of Black churches, and led to abolitionists creating the Compromise of 1850, to fighting in Bleeding Kansas, to a ground-breaking Supreme Court ruling, and ultimately to armed abolitionists attempting to incite a slave rebellion. The rise of African American churches played a vital role in advancing the Civil War because it brought the issue of morality into the slavery debate. Created in protest, the Black church, prior to the Civil War represented the first occasion of Black rebellion among the secret churches of the slave community, and in the liberated Black churches in the North. Black congregations nurtured a sense of hope and self-expression, laying the basis of Black power and freedom. They understood that the â€Å"†¦Christian Gospel was a gospel of liberation †¦ and †¦ refused to accept an interpretation of Christianity that was unrelated to civil freedom.† (Westley 1). Northern church members Richard Allen and Absalom Jones created the first African American church by walking out of a Methodist Episcopal Church in protest due to the discrimination they had experienced. They started the African Methodist EpiscopalShow MoreRelatedThe Battle Of The Civil War1127 Words   |  5 Pagesshaken by the Civil War because some states wanted to separate themselves from this unity that had lasted for approximately 100 years. The American Civil War is a historic affair and one of the bloodiest battles in history of the US (Engle, Krick, 2003). It is considered one of the bloodstained happenings in the history of the US because more than 600, 000 people died. A majority of this number were soldiers. This fatal battle happened between the years 1861 to 1865. The Civil War emerged becauseRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War Essay1424 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the years 1861 to 1865 the American Civil War took place and it is known as Americas bloodiest war. The cause of the Civil war was the debate between free states and slave states over the government trying to prohibit slavery. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln became president of the United States and ran on the platform to keep slavery out of the new unclaimed territories of the United States. Once Lincoln became president seven southern states seceded from the Union ultimately creating the ConfederateRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1666 Words   |  7 PagesThe Civil war was one of the biggest turning points in United States history. The nation’s failure to compromise on the subject of slavery led to an outbreak of war. Battles such as Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Shiloh led to what we know of today as a free nation. Great technological advancements in weaponry led to mass c asualties among both north and south, often making death inevitable. Those who bravely served and those who were forced to serve lived a life of fear, starvation, and commitment toRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1191 Words   |  5 PagesWhen the Civil War started both sides thought the war would be over by Christmas. But little did they know this small war would turn into the deadliest war in American history. The Civil War was fought between the Confederacy and the Union. The Confederacy was consisted of Southern states that did not agree with the views of the Union states. After years of sectional differences in the United States between the north and south, tension between the states grew and a war between the north and southRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1073 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War was a war that was thought to would have lasted no longer than ninety days. After all was said and done, the war lasted more than four years and claimed tens of thousands of li ves of both The Union and The Confederate States. There were several battles fought on Northern and Southern soil, battles that forced bloody mortal combat between brothers in the fight for equality amongst all men. It tested the strength of the foundation that the United States was built upon. The Civil War wasRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War960 Words   |  4 PagesHave you ever wondered why the Civil War happened or why it was so substantial to American History? What was the battle that changed it all; that made it the history it is today? Many people have made speculations on the causes of the war and what the major turning point was, but cannot really narrow it down. In James McPherson’s Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam he points out the pivotal moments in American history that led up to and changed the Civil War, so that the reader can get a better insightRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1197 Words   |  5 PagesMarianna, FL. The battle will be virtually unkno wn in the history of the Civil War, but its success marked the longest successful incursion of Union troops into Florida (Cox, 2014). This raid had two goals; the first was to rescue the reported Union prisoners and the second was to liberate and enlist any slaves that were found along the route (Calvin, 2014). The prisoners were not located, but more than 600 slaves were liberated along their route (Cox, 2014). The subsequent battle did not last longRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1163 Words   |  5 Pageshad already decided to secede from the Union. Those 7 states started the Confederate States of America, run by their own President, Jefferson Davis. This same issue was the catalyst for the Civil War which started on April 12, 1861. One of the major and well-known battles of the Civil War was the Battle of Gettysburg. It was on this backdrop that Abraham Lincoln delivered a speech that is â€Å"universally recognized by historians and scholars alike as the most famous and most important speech everRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1233 Words   |  5 PagesIt is evident that the Civil War helped shape America into the country it is today. The strong factional division -based on slavery- between the Union and the Confederacy guaranteed certain achievements of both sides. Much of what we consider history today remains a part of the outcome from these multiple bloody battles. Activist John Muir of the Civil War-era stated, â€Å"the traces of war are not only apparent on the broken fields, burnt fences, mills, and woods ruthlessly slaughtered, but also onRead MoreThe Battle Of The Civil War1133 Words   |  5 Pagesfierce battles were fought to secure the rights and freedom of both men and women, irrespective of their religion, gender, and race. Of all of the battles, the American Civil War stands out. Divided into the Union and the Confederacy, the American civil war broke out after the southern states seceded due to slavery that spread in many parts of the country. The Civil War began in the year 1861 and ended four years later. The end result was the Union becoming victorious in 1865. The Civil War was a

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Revenues Of Football Clubs Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3645 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Although all accountants adopt the generally accepted accounting rules, each industry has its own characteristics. This is why analysts need specific knowledge about the industry so as to decide which set of accounting rules to apply to reflect the financial situation of the corporation best. And in the football industry, perhaps the main characteristics is the fluctuations in revenue and net income due to uncertainties in the industry. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Revenues Of Football Clubs Finance Essay" essay for you Create order A team can earn a huge amount of money in this year but it can find itself losing money in the next year. The uncertainties root from the uncertain results in the league games. The revenues of football clubs heavily depend on the performance of the team in the league. A simple example is that the football club which does well may have a higher revenue than its counterparts due to the elevated demand of the club-related merchandize. So, if the underlying principles that affect the teams revenue-generating factor can be identified, predicting the company performance will be much easier. This shall be discussed in the following by analyzing the annual reports from 2004-2007 of three football clubs, which are Arsenal Football Club, Liverpool Football Club and Tottenham Hotspur. (Notes: The annual report for the year 2007 of Liverpool is not yet released and therefore we use the statistics in 2004 instead. As said previously, since the financial performance fluctuates greatly, we ar e not going to estimate the figures in 2007.) Factors There are a number of factors that can affect the ability of a football team of generating revenues. First, it is known that a part of the operating income of a football club comes from the reward of winning a championship. For UK football clubs, they usually aim at advancing in the UEFA Cup or the even loftier UEFA Championship League, which have a relatively high value of prize money. They sometimes pay less attention to domestic competitions like Premier League, Carling Cup and FA Cup. Apart from the prize money, another important factor is the broadcasting revenue. This comes from the agreements signed between the clubs and the league or cup organizers. Each team in the league receives the broadcasting fee directly proportioned to the number of rounds they played. Therefore, a team in the league usually receives the same share of broadcasting revenues. Yet, for the cup competitions where the knock-out system is adopted, a team which makes a deeper run has more matches to play and hence more broadcasting revenues. It also attracts a larger audience to watch the broadcast, thereby benefiting the club. Also, the revenue gained from the gate receipts is also crucial. Similar to the TV broadcasting fees, the better the team performs, the higher the revenue the team gets from the ticket sales, partly due to the brand name effect, which boosts the ticket sales. The above four factors shall be discussed in the upcoming section of Team Results. Secondly, the sales of team-related merchandize items can also be a major source of income. This highly depends on the size of fan-base. A larger fan-base has a higher demand in the club merchandize, which boosts the operating income. Clubs tend to invest to enlarge its fan-base, which is often described as a marketing strategy as found in the annual reports. A larger fan-base also enhances the brand name of the football club, which can also be a potential benefit for the football club itself. This shall be discussed in the Fan Base section. Thirdly, a team who is able to control the payroll of independent players better enjoys a greater fiscal freedom due to the stricter cost control, which can be beneficial to the football club. Plus, if a team can efficiently deal with the sum involving trading player, the team places itself to a sound financial position. These factors shall be discussed in the section Payroll and Trading of Players. Last but not least, the administr ation and policy of the directors influence the sustainability of the club a lot. For instance, the decision of building a new stadium, investing in training facilities or simply renovating their headquarters do play a significant role in the long-term development of the club. Only if the leaders of the club are of visions can they lead the club to adapt to the environmental changes and to survive from different challenges. This shall be discussed in the Team Strategies part. Team Results Net Sales 2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   156887  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   138395  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   137237  Ã‚  Ã‚   144173 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  91576  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   121054  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   119499  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   110710 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  66324  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   70550  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   74141  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   70338 Net Income   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   8152  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   8293  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   7902  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   8115.667 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -18220  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7533  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   -4257  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -4981.33 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -2692  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4104  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   -1575  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -54.3333 As mentioned before, a teams success in leagues and cups definitely has a great impact on the teams profitability. In particular, European competitions, mainly UEFA Championship League and UEFA Cup, are of the utmost importance to the UK football clubs due to the lucrative bonuses and broadcasting fees. Successes in European competitions also imply a higher visibility and global exposure which help a club capture more fans. It is found that there is sound evidence to draw a positive relationship between the successes of the football clubs to the revenues therefore generate. Both Arsenal and Liverpool were competing in UEFA Championships League in the past few years and Tottenham was only competing in the lower-level UEFA Cup. This explains the huge disparity between the revenue of Arsenal and Liverpool and that of Tottenham. For Tottenham, they also had a break-out last season, which is entering the quarter-final of UEFA Cup. It leads to a boost in revenue from pound;74 mil lion to pound;103 million. However, before that, its revenue never exceeds pound;100 million which makes the club inferior against the other 2 clubs. For Liverpool, its revenue ranges from pound;92 million to 121 million in 2004-2006. In particular, Liverpool won the UEFA Championships League in 2005 leading to the exceptionally high turnover of pound;121 million and net income of pound;7.53 million this year. Yet, in both 2004 and 2006, the club suffers from a great loss which probably due to its early exit in the UEFA Championships League. For Arsenal, its revenue exhibits stability over the past 4 years, especially from 2004 to 2006, where its revenue ranges from pound;137 million to pound;157 million. In 2007, however, there is a sudden increase in its revenue, due to the increase of sales of gate receipts in the new stadium (which shall be discussed later in the Team Strategies section). They also earn a positive net income all over the four years which cannot be achieved by the other two clubs. From 2004 to 2006, both revenue and net income of Arsenal are higher than that of Liverpool, even though Liverpool won the UEFA championships League in 2005. This is accomplished by the stable results in the domestic Premier League. Arsenal won the league in 2003/2004 seasons, finished the second and fourth respectively in the next two seasons while Liverpool havent won the Premier League since 1989/1990. In this season, Arsenal leads the Premier League and has secured a place in the UEFA Championships League First knock-out round while Liverpool faces elimination in the UEFA championships League group stage and is in the 5th   place of Premier League. Tottenham is in the 13th place and hence is only competing in UEFA Cup only. We could conclude that Arsenal is now the best-performing team in this season among the three. In addition, the average age of first-team squad of Arsenal is roughly 23, which is much younger than that of Liverpool and Tott enham, which is around 26 and 27. In the foreseeable future, when Arsenal players matures in the next few years, we expect that Arsenal will display high level of football and have a rather bright future and so as their overall team results. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that Arsenals revenue and net income will only continue to rise steadily in the next few years. And for Liverpool and Tottenham, both clubs have a large and sole reliance on European competitions; failure in these competitions could undoubtedly drag down their ability to generate income. All in all, Tottenham still has a long way to catch up with Arsenal and Liverpool while Arsenal seems to have a better on-court and financial performance than Liverpool. In terms of that, Arsenal is the best amongst all. Fan Base Another major source of revenue is the sales revenue of football kits, souvenirs and other team-related merchandize. This kind of revenue is mainly determined by the fan base of the football club. Usually, the broader the fan-base, the higher the demand of the merchandize, so as the revenue. Therefore the football clubs are more than willing to invest much in extending its fan base. Mechandize Revenue   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  6885  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   8389  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   10218  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  8497.333 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   11701  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   12312  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   16322  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  13445 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4381  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4739  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5182  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4767.3 33 Among the three football clubs that we are comparing, apparently both Arsenal and Liverpool football club enjoy a broader fan-base than Tottenham Hotspur due to their more glorious history. For example Liverpool has won Premier League for 18 times, a record for English clubs. It also won European Championship League for five times. Nevertheless, Arsenal won the Premier League for 13 times, especially in 2003/2004 season they remained unbeaten for the whole season which may be so incredible that can never be paralleled in the future. All these marvelous results help the team capture die-hard fans. This guarantees the steady, and fortunately increasing, sales of merchandize. Despite the fact that Tottenham also has a long history (125 years at 2007), their incapability in winning the Premier League for years and failures in European competitions limit their reputation and hence their fan-base. This explains why the sales revenue of Tottenham is much lower than that of the other two clubs. Therefore, it is found that Liverpool and Arsenal have overwhelming revenue from merchandize against Tottenham. From the reports, the average merchandize revenue of Tottenham (pound;4.8 million) is roughly a half of that of Arsenal (pound;8.5 million) and Liverpool (pound;10.1 million) only during 2004-2006. On the other hand, apart from the Arsenal football club, both Liverpool and Tottenham do explicitly recognize the potential of foreign markets and therefore state they would extend their markets in the annual reports. Liverpool focuses in extending their fan base in Asia. They have done so by doing promotions in Asia, for instance, they visit and play several friendly matches in different Asian cities in the past few years. For instance, there was a match resulting in 4-1 victory against Hong Kong team in 2006, which created a craze for Liverpool at that time in Hong Kong. And for Tottenham Hotspur, its main focus is on South Africa market. They not only organized a pre-season tour to South Africa, but also supported South African bid to host the 2010 World Cup. They, too, undertook a few social responsibility visits in the tour. As a result, the clubs successfully set up extensive association with South Africa. It also attempted to create strong bonds with the mass media. For example, it recently announced their partnership with SuperSport United, a Premier Football League team owned by SuperSport, which is one of the largest sports broadcasters with broadcast channels to 57 countries. The club-media bonds highly enhance the visibility of the club to its potential fans, thereby capturing more fans. Another key factor that affects the fan base is the presence of charismatic football stars in the team. The movements of popular football celebrities highly affect the size of fan base of a football team. It is not rare that some fans grow interest into particular charismatic players themselves instead of the football club itself . This dependency factor has increased risk for the club as when some players refuse to extend their contracts with the club, the club may lose some of their fans. Therefore to guarantee the sustainability of a club, it tends to sign a longer contract period with the players. Take David Beckham as an example, he was traded to Real Madrid of Spain from Manchester United of England at a cost of â‚ ¬35 million (roughly pound;25 million) in 2003. The Real Madrid club has received an almost immediate growth in its fan base and therefore has quickly earned enough revenue that can cover the transaction cost by merely the sales of Beckhams kits. In general, signing of football stars does help raise their image and stimulate their sales revenue. It usually provides immediate yet short-term spark to the team. At the end, it also comes to the team performance to both attract and retain fans in the long run to maintain a sustainable growth and development. For Arsenal, the most popu lar star is undoubtedly Thierry Henry but unfortunately he has left the team to join FC Barcelona. Though there are other rising stars in the team like Cesc Febregas, Theo Walcott and Van Persie who not only help the team to achieve excellent result but also help attracting more people to watch the teams matches, the leaving of Thierry Henry is hardly be compensated. For Liverpool, thanks to their charismatic captain Steven Gerrard and skillful striker Fernando Torres, the team is gaining more and more support from all over the world. And their effort and explore made in Asian market will only further boost their popularity. In comparison with Liverpool and Arsenal, Tottenham obviously lack some trademark football stars. This pays an important role into the poor economic performance of the club. As a short conclusion, Liverpools effort in exploring new market in Asia is obviously does help the club earn a handsome amount of merchandizing revenue. And due to the departure of Thierry Henry, it probably affects the merchandizing revenue of Arsenal and size of fan-base in the forthcoming seasons. So in term of fan-base, Liverpool does have a slight advantage over Arsenal whereas Tottenham is in the last place again. Payroll and Trading of Players Another key stakeholder in determining the performance of a club is the trading of player. Signing a top player not only helps a team by having a strong member in the team in order to remain competitive, but also creates a positive brand name effect to the team. Yet one must not neglect the fact that it may also create severe financial burdens to the club once over-contracting players (diseconomies of scale). For example, Leeds who once entered the semi-final of UEFA Championship League is currently playing in the Football League only, which is two levels lower than the Premier League. The main reason for its failure is its over-expansion. It used to aim at qualifying for the European Championships League and therefore allocated a generous amount of fund for signing top-class players. Its investments were financed by borrowing but sadly they failed to enter the UEFA Championship League. As a result, it was forced to sell its players at a cheap price because it didnt have enough cash to repay the debt and the players payrolls. Thats a good example to illustrate the importance of cost controlling. Liquidity and liability must be considered too. Cash Ratio   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   0.25  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   0.66791  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.21227  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.376727 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.00452  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.0104  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.00623  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.00705 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.351  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.824  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.473  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.549333 Financial Leverage Ratio   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.546  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3.3265  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4.96  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.610833 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3.13  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.26  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.6  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.33 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1.7786  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1.696  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.465  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1.979867 Considering their cash ratio, both Arsenal and Tottenham are acceptable, with a ratio of 0.38 and 0.55 respectively. But Liverpools ratio is a low 0.007 only which is an evidence of its risky situation. It has to seek ways to either increase their cash or reduce their current liabilities. For the financial leverage ratio, Arsenals ratio is 3.61 which is a bit high since Arsenal finances its construction of new stadium mainly by loans. But the club has put in considerable effort to reorganizations of loans by issuing bonds of fixed interest rate. This stabilizes the clubs finance. Liverpools ratio is a little lower at 3.33. Tottenhams ratio is probably the best, with 1.98 which make its plan of building a new stadium possible. These shall be discussed in the upcoming Team Strategies section. But it should be noted that signing of players does not actually affect the net income as the cost of player registration is amortized. So only when players are traded to other clubs, the revenue is affected and either a gain or loss will be recorded. This particularly concerns with the teams ability to sell players at prices higher than their net book values. Profit on disposal of player registrations   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2282  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2894  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   19150  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  8108.667 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  415  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   10559  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  6216  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5730 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  -381  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5632  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   12299  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  5850 This time, Arsena l seems to be the best businessman, earning an average of pound;8.1 million during 2004-2006, much higher than that of Liverpool and Tottenham, which are pound;5.7 million and pound;5.9 million during 2004-2006 respectively. This probably should be credited to Arsenals manager Arsene Wenger. He is long well-known for transforming average players into top-class players. He signs young players with hot prospect at a low cost and develops them into top-class players. For example, Theirry Henry was signed at a cost of pound;10 million but sold at a price of pound;16 million, a 60%-increase in his value. In addition, in the last season, both Arsenal and Tottenham recorded an unbelievably high profit on disposal of player registrations, pound;18.5 and pound;18.7 million respectively due to sale of Arsenal striker Thierry Henry and Tottenham midfielder Michael Carrick. Even though the annual report of Liverpool in the last year has yet been disclosed, we dont expect a such high level of profit on disposal of player registrations. Apart from the trading of players, controlling the payroll of players can effectively raise the level of net income as payroll solely takes up for more than 40% of the clubs total revenue. The rising of payroll in the Barclays Premier League has called for concern for all football clubs, not only the three clubs that we are comparing. For example, there are more and more players who earn more than pound;100,000 per week like Rooney, Christiano Ronaldo and Jason Terry. Among all, the player with highest payroll is Michael Ballack, who earns pound;130,000 per week. This highly reduces the profit margin of the clubs and may therefore trigger a vicious cycle of increasing the payrolls of the players. Ratio of payroll/net sales   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2004  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2006  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Average Arsenal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     0.39086731  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.4090177  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.5022625  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.4340492 Liverpool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.53166769  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.4708312  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.5084059  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.5036349 Tottenham  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.46171823  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.418781  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.4886095  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0.4563696 For these 3 teams, payroll represents 43.4% of Arsenal net sales, 50.4% of Liverpool net sales and 45.6% of Tottenham net sales during 2004-2006. It seems that Arsenal is doing a good job but in fact their ratios have been rising consistently from 39.0% to 50.2% from 2004 to 2006, which is an alarm to the club. They should have paid more attention and efforts to the payroll. For Liverpool, its payroll occupied nearly half of its revenue which is not a good sign at all implying inefficient management. They should be more active in cutting down unnecessary players. For Tottenham, they are doing a pretty good job. Their payroll has never exceeded 50% of their total revenue. However, this season they has just fired their manager Martin Jol and paid quite a huge sum of compensation. An addition of new players like Darren Bent in this season may also create new financial burdens to the club. To summarize, all clubs didnt have big liquidity problem but Arsenal is able to generate the most amount of revenue from profit on disposal of player registrations though there are some concerns a bout its increasing payroll. Still, Arsenal is advantageous in these aspects due to Liverpool even-worse control on payroll. Despite so, Tottenham can catch up with Arsenal soon if they continue to exert stricter control on payroll and generate income from disposal of player registrations. Team Strategies Decisions and policies of the teams also play an important role in determining the teams economic performance. For Arsenal, they insist to re-invest profits and surplus cash into team development, including signing and retaining best players in the team, improving training facilities, medical treatments and youth academy. This may reduce net income level but it surely ensures the sustainability of the club. Moreover, Arsenals new stadium Emirates Stadium has just completed last year, with a great capacity of 60,355 seats, 22,000 more than the old one. This significantly increases the sales of the gate receipts of the team, leading to an increase of revenue from pound;137.2 million in 2006 to pound;200.8 million in 2007. Specifically, the revenue from the gate receipt nearly doubled from pound;42 million to nearly pound;90 million. Tottenham also plans to build a new stadium which could be a good news to the fans but it could also create financial pressure to the club. They ma inly finance the establishment of new stadium by loan. They have to limit the budget for signing players carefully in the next few years implying probable drop in the team competitiveness. Liverpool sees the need of reducing payroll. They therefore wait for surplus players to see out their contracts. But this measure is a little passive. All in all, team strategies take time to take effect. We cant conclude which clubs have the best strategies at this early stage. But we do value Arsenals approach to re-invest their retained earnings as this certainly ensures the long-term development of the club. And Tottenhams attempt to build a new stadium may limit its short-term development but would greatly increase its gate receipts and therefore its net income. On the contrary, Liverpool seems to lack some long-term development plan which could greatly harm their competitiveness in the future. Conclusion On the whole, Arsenal has possibly the best team performance in recent years and future too. It also has the highest profit from disposal of player registrations and ranks second in the both payroll and fan base. It has vision that support sustainability of the club. On top of that, the most impressive thing about Arsenal is its stability over the time period. It exhibits stability in various ratios. It greatly reduce and fluctuation and therefore risks for potential investors. It generates stable yet generous and increasing amount of net income. On the contrary, both Liverpool and Tottenham have a net loss in some years. For investors, Arsenal is certainly a club which worth our attention for holding its stocks in a long term.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Samuel Beckett¨s Novel Molloy and Its Particular Style,...

There’s no question Samuel Beckett was deeply influenced by the avant-garde style of fellow Irish novelist James Joyce when writing Molloy. Both Beckett and Joyce allude to the classics (Dante’s Purgatorio and Homer’s Odyssey, respectively) and both extensively employ interior monologue to often similar effect. Even so, Beckett, ever aware of the shadow cast by his former mentor, also attempted to eschew Joycean tendencies in his works, as demonstrated in Molloy. Here, not only does Beckett entirely deny readers the luxury of context, he deconstructs the very fundamentals of novel and narrative. Distinctly metafictional in form, Molloy self-consciously underlines its own artificiality and, on a universal level, that intrinsic to fiction itself. Like the titular allusion of Joyce’s Ulysses, the two protagonists in Molloy also embark on a voyage of sorts, albeit the nature of which is even more so internalized. As a result, there’s not much by way of plot or setting, which remain intentionally hazy. Still, the novel moves, sometimes at a dizzying pace, in part to its frequent digressions and elision of so many vital answers: Are Molloy and Moran the same character? Is it possible Molloy may not even be a person altogether but rather an alter ego of Moran? Is Molloy a state of mind? What exactly does it mean to be â€Å"searching for Molloy†? These questions stem from the novel’s vague definition of physical space and time, leading some readers to interpret the novel’s second

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Complex Nursing Care Drug Alternatives

Question: Describe about the Complex Nursing Care for Drug Alternatives . Answer: All the blood spots on his clothes should be removed using detergent and it should be sterilized using disinfectant. Disinfectant used should be alcohol and formaldehyde. Dont allow Mr Barber to wear clothes with blood stains. Discard immediately syringes and needle used for Mr. Barber. Surface of the floor should be disinfected, where Mr. Barber vomited. Bedding of Mr. Barber should be changed twice a day (Glen Mayhall, 2013). List of PPE : Gloves, mask, eye protection, face shield, gown and linen. Barbers heart rate is little more than normal heart rate which is called tachycardia, he also has shallow breathing which is littler more than normal which is called tachypnea and his blood pressure is little less than the normal blood pressure. These all vital signs directly correlate with the blood loss in Barber which is called hypovolemic shock. As all these vital signs are slightly deviated from normal values with ADDS score of 1 (Talley OConnor, 2013). Ondansetron is medication specifically used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting. This medication can be administered both by oral route and intravenous route. It exhibits its action by acting as antagonist of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor with less affinity for dopamine receptor. Occurrence of these 5-HT3 receptors is on vagal nerve terminals peripherally and in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of area postrema centrally. Enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine release serotonin and this serotonin stimulates vagal afferents by acting on 5-HT3 receptors which stimulates vomiting reflex. Thus antagonizing effect of ondansetron on 5-HT3 receptors results in the stimulation of vomiting reflex (Christofaki Papaioannou, 2014). Mr. Barber has rapid heart rate. Due to rapid heart rate, P waves are hidden in the preceding T wave and it produces camel hump appearance (Gertsch, 2013). 3. MRN: 0598371 Family Name: Barber Given Name: Frederick Date of Birth: 2/3/1931 S I am EN Ms.A in Emergency ward. I am mentioning about Mr. Barber. I observed that Mr. Barber has haematemasis, epogastric pain, high pulse rate and respiratory rate, low blood pressure. B Mr. Barber was admitted to emergency department on 6/3/2013 at 8 p.m. with haematemasis, epigastric pain. Mr. Barber had Diverticulitis, Emphysema, Ischaemic disease, osteoarthritis and morbid obesity. There is no change in his condition. A I think his blood vomiting is still there. He is taking medication to stop vomiting, however it is not stopping. I have given him IV fluids and analgesic drugs. R It is recommended that, he should undergo gastroscopy. (Porche, 2008) What do you think, who are the most suitable people to take your wife in your absence? Is she would be fine with neighbors or he would like to call upon his relatives who can better understand her feelings and her condition. Whether you required any trained personnel to take care of your wife because, with this nursing staff she would be holistic nursing care. Is there any cultural hindrance in your community to share medical condition to the health care professionals? Because sharing exact medical condition is very important in nursing practice to make effective nursing care plan. Is there requirement to arrange prayer of God for his wife?. Because due to prayers there is the possibility she may get peace of mind and freedom from fear and anxiety (Yousefi Abedi, 2011). Nurse should take consent from Barber to give information to the neighbor about his condition. Nurse should inform neighbor that Mr. Barber is stable now and he is showing improvement in his condition. Frequency of his vomiting is also reduced and he is responding well to the medications. He will be discharged soon and he will with his wife soon. Nurse should inform neighbor that he is inquiring about his wife and asking them to take her of her in proper way. Nurse should tell neighbor that Barber informed that neighbor should consider her forgetfulness and assist her in all her activities (Holzeme Klainberg, 2014). 6. Written consent should be taken from Mr. Barber. Request/consent form should be there with information containing Mr Barber name, date of birth, age, full address, clinical history and medications. Consent form should contain information about nature of testing, complexity of examination, risk related to the procedure and Barbers wish for testing (Daniels, 2014). While transferring to the radiology department each one qualified person form the cardiology and respiratory department is there. Mr. Barber is having low blood pressure which is called hypotension and due to fear of radiological testing it can also affect further his blood pressure. His heart rate is also little more than normal which is called tachycardia and it can also get affected due to anxiety of testing. Hence, for continuous monitoring of his blood pressure and heart rate, expert form cardiology department is required. His respiratory rate is also little higher than normal respiratory rate which is called tachypnea and due to fear and anxiety of radiological testing there may be further shallowness in his respiratory rate. Mr. Barber has very high BMI. To assess and observe respiratory rate, expert form the respiratory department should be there at the time of radiology. Along with this radiology expert and radiographer or radiology technician required for Mr. Barbers radiol ogy testing. Radiology expert and radiographer well trained in manual handling of radiography machine without any discomfort to the patient. This radiography techniques is widely used for the patient with ostoarthritis (Talley OConnor, 2013). 7. D - Danger Danger due to osteoarthritis was checked and there is no danger of fall due to osteoarthritis. R- Response Response was checked by rubbing on his body parts and it is observed that he is conscious. A-Airway Airway was checked and it is observed that his airway is clear. B-Breathing Breathing was checked by keeping ear near to the mouth and chest. It is observed that he is having shallow breathing. C-Circulation Circulation was performed and it is observed that there are 40 chest compressions for every 2 breaths. D- Defibrillator Defibrillator is applied. (Talley OConnor, 2013). Form these assessments it is observed that Mr. Barber is having mild hypovolemic shock due to the loss of blood through vomiting. From the above assessment it is evident that there is increased heart rate per breaths in Mr. Barber. In case of blood loss there is the increased heart rate because to maintain supply of blood to the tissues which is reduced due to blood loss, heart pumps more blood and there is increased heart rate. Also, form the assessments it is evident that there is the increased respiratory rate. Due to blood loss, there is reduced oxygen saturation as compared to the carbon dioxide. To maintain oxygen saturation, lungs breaths at faster rate. Hence, these variations in heart rate and breathing rate are little more than normal values, there is little loss of blood through vomiting (Talley OConnor, 2013). 8. Seretide Accuhaler is the combination of medications like fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate. Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive lung disease which occurs due to the inflammation of the lung and due to which there the shortness of breath due to narrowing of airways due to inflammation and followed by structural changes in the airways. Fluticasone propionate is a corticosteroid and it is used as anti-inflammatory agent. Fluticasone propionate reduces inflammation in the respiratory tract by inhibiting recruitment of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells produce variety of markers which produces acute exacerbations of emphysema. Thus inhibiting inflammatory cells can reduce acute exacerbations of emphysema. Salmeterol xinafoate is a long-acting ? adrenergic receptor agonist which produces bronchodilator action. Due this bronchodilator action salmeterol xinafoate prevets or reverse narrowing of the airways and useful in preventing wheezing, coughing and sh ortness of breath which are the common symptoms of emphysema (Chen et al., 2013). b. Hold accuhaler in one hand and open it by pushing thumb to the right so the mouthpiece is visible. Hold the mouthpiece of acchaler directing towards you and push the lever away from you. Breathe out to the extent of maximum of your capacity and mouthpiece should be put on your lips. You should breathe through your accuhaler and not the nose and slowly breathe out. Silde the thumb grip back to original postion to close the accuhaler (Chen et al., 2013). Voltaren Emulgel is an external application used for relieving osteoarthritic pain in Mr. Barber. Voltaren Emulgel contains diclofenac sodium which is non-steroidal antiinflmmatory drug use dot reduce pain, swelling and inflammation. Diclofenac sodium exhibits its action by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis through cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Oxucodone is a opioid pain medication used for reducing osteoarthritis pain of Mr. Barber. Oxycodone is available in the form of controlled release tablet and it produces pain relieving effect over the period of 12 hrs. Thus it helps to improve quality of life. Oxycodone acts a selective full agonist of -opioid receptor and lesser affinity for the other opioid receptors like -opioid and -opioid receptors. Once oxycodone binds to -opioid receptor, G-protein complex released which inhibits neurotransmitter release. As a result cAMP level reduced and it closes calcium channels and open potassium channels. Naproxen in the orally administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) drug used for reducing pain due to osteoarthritis in Mr. Barber. Naproxen acts by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis which is pain and inflammatory marker. Naproxen inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting both Cox 1 and Cox2 enzymes. Panadol Osteo is a sustained release tablet containing paracetamol. Paracetamol is useful for relieving mild to moderate pain and it acts specifically on the Cox 2 enzyme. Panadol Osteo has two layers of paracetamol. Out layer released within 30 minutes of its administration and second layer released over period of 8 hrs. to give relief from pain to Mr. Barber. Aspirin is also used for the management of pain in Mr. Barber. Aspirin acts by inhibiting Cox1 enzyme and modifying the action of Cox 2 enzyme (Balch, et al., 2011). Nurse should ask him about the pain in the knees, hips and wrists. During what type of activities Mr. Barber is facing problem. Is he having problem in flexion and extension movements of joints? Nurse should ask him to grade his pain score during different activities on a scale of 1-10. Also, nurse should ask him, according to him how bad is his arthritis and ask him to designate either of the mild, moderate and severe. Due to this osteoarthritis his daily activities affected are clothing and putting buttons, washing hair, getting up from chair, getting up from the bed after completion of sleep, taking bath and use of toilet (Sadosky eta l., 2010). Nurse should remove the bandage check the severity of wound due to cut. Nurse should remove the bandage and clean the wound with the help of antiseptic and apply antiseptic lotion on it and apply new bandage. Nurse should advise Mr. Barber not to put water on the leg. Because wound is not properly filled currently and due to water, there may be possibility of infection on the wound. Nurse should daily check the severity of wound, clean it properly and apply new bandage on the daily basis. Nurse also should advise Mr. Barber not to remove bandage on his own, until he gets instructions from the nurse or other medical staff (Peate Glencross, 2015). Nurse should try to convince him about the importance of gastroscopy in his current condition. Nurse should give him confidence that, his wife is going to be taken care nicely by his neighbors. He should be perfectly fine to take his wife. For this purpose, he needs to get recovered completely. Until and unless he performs gastrocopy, it would be difficult to know the exact reason behind his blood vomiting and planning for the concerned intervention. If Mr. Barber is not ready undertake gastroscopy, even after all these efforts, nurse should try to manage blood vomiting with medications for few days and ask him to come back for gastrosopy (Yao, 2013). Mr. Barber is having osteoarthritis problem. So, physiotherapist is the most suitable allied health worker for Mr. Barber. Physiotherapist is associated with the hospital since long time and this physiotherapist is skilled enough to take care of osteoarthritis patients. Physiotherapist is beneficial for Mr. Barber because he can promote moderate exercise in Mr. Barber which helps to reduce pain and improve functioning. Physiotherapist teach Mr. Barber stretching and strengthening exercise which helps to improve free joint motion and make stronger the muscles around the affected joint. Physiotherapist applies cold packs to the affected joints after exercise to relax it and to reduce pain. Also there should be interaction with psychologist who can give moral boost to Mr. Barber in his disease condition. Nurse should assist Mr. Barber in his all daily activities. There should be coordination between physiotherapist, psychologist and nurse for providing holistic community care to Mr. Bar ber (Page Hinman, 2011). References: Balch, J. F., Stengler, M., Young-Balch, R. (2011). AARP Osteoarthritis and Osteoporosis Drug Alternatives. John Wiley Sons. Chen, L., Heng, R.L., Delele, M.A., Cai, J., Du, DZ., Opara, U.L. (2013). Investigation of dry powder aerosolization mechanisms in different channel designs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 457(1):143-9. Christofaki, M., Papaioannou, A. (2014). Ondansetron: a review of pharmacokinetics and clinical experience in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism Toxicology, 10(3), 437-44. Daniels, R. (2014). Delmar's Guide to Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. Cengage Learning. Gertsch, M. (2013). The ECG: A Two-Step Approach to Diagnosis. Springer Science Business Media. Glen Mayhall, C. (2013). Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Holzemer, S. P. Klainberg, M. (2014). Community Health Nursing. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Page, C.J., Hinman, R.S., Bennell, K.L. (2011). Physiotherapy management of knee osteoarthritis. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 14(2), 145-51. Peate, I., Glencross, W. (2015). Wound Care at a Glance. John Wiley Sons. Porch, R. A. (2008). High-Alert Medications: Strategies for Improving Safety. Joint Commission Resources. Sadosky, A. B., Bushmakin, A. G., Cappelleri, J. C., Lionberger, D.R. (2010). Relationship between patient-reported disease severity in osteoarthritis and self-reported pain, function and work productivity. Arthritis Research Therapy, 12(4), R162. Talley, N. J, OConnor, S. (2013). Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis. Elsevier Health Sciences. Yousefi, H. Abedi, H. A. (2011). Spiritual care in hospitalized patients. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 16(1), 125132. Yao, K. (2013). Zoom Gastroscopy: Magnifying Endoscopy in the Stomach. Springer Science Business Media.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Last-Minute Optimization Ideas to Boost Your Easter Ecommerce Sales

By: Chris Reid, Account Manager Easter is almost here but it’s not too late to make some last-minute adjustments to your Ecommerce presence for the holiday.The Easter bunny can bring major consumer traffic to many businesses: Americans spent an estimated $16.4 billion on candy, plastic eggs and other holiday merchandise in 2015. But you don’t have to be in the marshmallow Peep business to make the most of this holiday.If you haven’t started planning already, we’ve got a few smart marketing strategies that can help you keep your customers engaged and boost sales. Run a Contest Well-timed and engaging contests can increase your exposure on social media and attract more potential customers to your website. For example – depending on your business – you could have your Facebook fans send in their best Easter photos and offer prizes in different categories: craziest Easter bonnet, most creatively decorated eggs, kids in their Easter outfits, etc. Get fans to vote for their favorite entries and you’ll collect lots of shares, likes and comments along the way.You could also run the same type of contest on Instagram and make up your own fun hashtag to go with it. Update Your Social Media Branding Incorporate a little Easter into your social media pages – spring flowers, colorful eggs, pastels, bunnies and chicks are just a few possibilities.You can also try creating an Easter-themed cover photo for your Facebook and Google+ pages. Theme Your Social Posts Not sure what to post?You can’t go wrong with a fun holiday-themed photo.Photos on Facebook receive about 104% more comments and 53% more likes than text-only posts. While you’re thinking about your social media presence, don’t forget to create a few Easter-themed blog posts if it fits with your company’s style. Bring Easter to Your Website Your company’s website offers plenty of opportunities to capitalize on the Easter season. Set up a landing page for your Easter-related products and promotions and add some fun content that will keep visitors engaged. Send a Holiday Email An easy way to sneak in some Easter marketing is to send your customers a holiday email. Create an attention-grabbing Easter-themed subject line, insert some themed graphics and add a compelling call-to-action to drive visitors to your site. Although some of these tactics require some creativity and strategy, they can generally be done fairly quickly. Utilizing ones that best work for your business will allow you to take advantage of the Easter season to boost visibility and gain new customers. Did I miss any? Let me know in the comments!

Monday, March 9, 2020

Sdfdsf Essay Example

Sdfdsf Essay Example Sdfdsf Paper Sdfdsf Paper Business 109 will provide an introduction to the modern business enterprise. We will examine the role of business in a market economy, survey current business trends and the global, financial, and social environment in which businesses exist and operate. Moreover, the course will describe the evolution, formation and management of American and international businesses, and provide a basic understanding of various functional areas of business, including economics, marketing, finance, management, human resources, international operations, and business decision making using information technology. In lieu off final exam, students will be able to get additional experience in the business world through a semester-long final project of building a comprehensive profile of an actual business. The Business Profile project consists of a series of three (3) written research assignments, including corporate background as well as business strategies and practices related to marketing, management, and finance. Students have a choice of either working alone or in a team of two. For extra credit, students may present the profile of the particular business to the entire class at the end of the course. II. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will learn to: a. Analyze the relationship and interaction between business enterprises and other institutions b. Develop basic business vocabulary and a familiarity with key business concepts c. Practice and participate in research, business communication, and teamwork activities d. Apply actual business practices in model business situations e. Ill. TEXTBOOK BUSS, 4th Edition, 2011; Clergywomen; ISBN: (Please note you will need to purchase Webster access either from the DVD Bookstore as packaged with the book, or online from within Web). V. GRADING Your grade will be a composite of classroom participation, end-of-chapter quizzes, and a course-long Business Profile project that includes three written assignments. There are total of 1000 points (required) possible for the course: 1. Class Participation @300 points 2 End-of-chapter Quizzes (Best 10 of 12 taken online) 300 @40 points each -400 3. Business Profile Project (3 written assignments) @OHIO points each 300 Total points = 1000 Students will also have the potential to earn a total of 100 extra credit points, 50 of which through clipping business related articles and sharing them with the class inline on the course website, and another 50 of which by presenting the results of your Business Profile project to the whole class at the end of the course. Grade Distribution: 900 1 oho = A (90%) 800-899 = B (80%) 700-799 = c (70%) 600-699 = D (60%) 599 and below = F V. MORE ON QUIZZES, ASSIGNMENTS AND FINAL PROJECT 1. End-of-chapter Quizzes There will be self-administered quizzes for each chapter after you read the chapter in the textbook, go through the Powering Notes and attend lecture. For each quiz, you will be given 60 minutes to complete 20 questions which are true-false or ultimate-choice types. You are given one question at a time and are only allowed one try with the quiz so please do not take the quiz until you are absolutely ready and prepared. Please note that you will not get the results of the quiz until after the quiz deadline. The end-of-chapter quizzes will cover textbook readings, Powering notes, and discussions topics and can be accessed on the Web course site. They will be a combination of multiple-choice and true/false items. Each quiz is worth 40 points and has a deadline that can not be extended. You may take a quiz as early as it becomes available and as late as on the same day before the deadline. No make-up quizzes will be given-No exceptions. You final grade will be based on the best 10 of the 12 quizzes?the two quizzes (including missed quizzes) with the lowest scores will be Please note that there will be NO Final Exam for this class Cheers! Instead, students will participate in a semester-long business profile semester project?see below for details. Warning: Please note that all students are required to abide by the DVD academic honor codes?No cheating of any kind will be tolerated. 2. Written Assignments and Business Profile Project There will be no FINAL EXAM for this class. Instead, students will be able to get additional experience in the business world through a course-long project of building a comprehensive profile of an actual business. The Business Profile project consists of a series of three written research assignments, including corporate background as well as business strategies and practices related to marketing, management, and finance. Students have a choice of either working alone or in a team of two. For extra credit of 50 points, students may present the profile of the particular business to the entire class at the end of the course. Papers should be appropriate pages in length (see Assignment Description on Web), word processed using 12 point type, double spaced. Papers are expected to be proofread and checked for grammar and spelling. Please note that handwritten assignments will NOT be accepted. Assignments are due on the dates listed in the course outline. Please turn in your assignments in class on the dates due and please do NOT upload your assignments online. Late assignments will NOT be accepted. For extra credit, final project presentations can be one using projectors, either via transparency or Microsoft Powering. To help gain valuable teamwork experiences, students are encouraged to work in groups on the course-long business profile project, although individual work will be accepted if student is unable to or do not wish to find another team member. However, group sizes are limited to a maximum of two (2) because as research and experience suggest, the tasks of scheduling team meetings become more difficult as the number of team members increase and team productivity and effectiveness tend to suffer as a result. Remember that all team members will get the same grade for the same project. Having a great team can help reduce individual workload and boost the grades of all team members, but unfortunately the opposite tends to be true as well for a dysfunctional team?so pick your team member(s) carefully! VI. I will keep attendance record regularly and will record any late class arrivals or early departures. According dropped by the instructor. If you are not planning to ever come back to class, be sure to DROP the class yourself with Admissions and Records- it is not my responsibility to o that. Students are also expected to read assigned chapters ahead of scheduled class time and actively participate in class. Please follow the below-listed Reading and Assignment schedule carefully. Your class participation will be an important part (1 [3rd) of your course grade so please take it very seriously if you want to get a good grade in this class.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Japanese cultural analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Japanese cultural analysis - Research Paper Example Undertaking cultural and economic analysis is extremely beneficial for decision making be it at company level or at national levels. Without a vivid cultural and economic analysis in place, it becomes very difficult to know more about a particular place in question. To this effect, this write-up was undertaken to bring to light, the cultural analysis of Japan. Areas that have been looked at include geographical setting, social institutions and education. In terms of culture, Japan has a long adhered system of practices, which are important for every investor who wishes to enter Japan to know and learn to adhere to. This way, can be a future of promising prosperity for the investor. II. Introduction Cultural analysis is explained to be the use of qualitative research methods to identify â€Å"the applied analysis of cultural phenomenon, often including advertising and media products, in order to provide context for a client's business or insight into a market† (Association for Qualitative Research, 2010). By the use of the term qualitative research method, this that cultural analysis is conducted based on certain defined principles of publicly available data. Not withstanding this, a researcher may also conduct cultural analysis by the use of field related research methods such as interview (Association for Qualitative Research, 2010). In this context, much of the analysis was based on publicly available data and the most vital cultural analysis information on Japan comes to rest on three major areas. III. Country’s History (Brief) The first area of cultural analysis concern for Japan has to do with what the Gerson Lehrman Group, Inc (2011) puts it as the Confucian dynamism. â€Å"In practical terms Confucianism refers to a long-term versus a short-term orientation in life† (Hofstede, pg. 164). The Gerson Lehrman Group, Inc argues that Japan upholds the long-term orientation as against short-term orientation. Clark (2005) explains that count ries that have the long-term orientation revolve on the axis of â€Å"persistence (perseverance), ordering relationships by status, thrift and having a sense of shame.† Generally, policy makers of such countries focus on future generations rather than the present generation though it does not neglect the present generation altogether. To this end, Japan as a long-term oriented country invests so much in education since education has a long-term positive effect on the fortunes of the country. Against this backdrop, it can be said that kikki.k has a great advantage venturing into Japan. With reference to the products of kikki.k, it is clear the products have greater relation with education. This means that with a well marketing strategy, the company can dominate the stationery industry in the Japan. IV. Geographical Setting A. Location Viewed from the geographic coordinate system, Japan can be said to be 36 ° north of the equator and 138 ° east of the Prime Meridian. Japan is made up of thousands of islands, among which Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku are the four largest. Japan shares border and are the closest neighbors are Russia, China and Korea. B. Climate Due to the presence of the three thousand islands in Japan, Japan’s climate is not the same everywhere. However on the average, there are four seasons which are summer, winter, spring and autumn. C. Topography According to the Encyclopedia of the World (2011), there islands which stretches from Southeast Asia to the Aleutian Islands. 75% of land in Japan is covered with mountain. Landforms are steep and rugged. The is the presence of two principal mountain ranges, which are the Hida (or Japan Alps) and the Akaishi mountains. Among the many mountains, twenty-five have peaks of over 3,000 m (9,800 ft), among which the highest is Mt. Fuji (Fuji-san), which stands at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). There are 265 volcanoes in Japan among which 20 remain active. An average of 1,5000 minor shocks of earthquake occurs yearly. There are few and small plains which only about 29% of the